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  1. Kinds of Intelligence (under review). Cambridge University Press.

  2. Artificial Intelligence (under review). Cambridge University Press.

  3. Animal Minds (under review). Cambridge University Press.

  4. Methods in Comparative Cognition (under review). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.


  1. Unlimited Associative Learning as a Null Hypothesis (2022). Philosophy of Science, 1-24.

  2. Direct Human-AI comparison in the Animal-AI Environment (2022). With Voudouris et al. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 1-22.

  3. How Should We Study Animal Consciousness Scientifically? (2022). With Birch et al. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 29(3-4), 8-28.

  4. Evolutionary Transition Markers and the Origins of Consciousness (2022). With David Harrison and Colin Klein. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 29(3-4), 62-77.

  5. Replications in Comparative Psychology (2021). Animal Behavior and Cognition, 8(2), 263-272.

  6. Insightful Artificial Intelligence (2021). Mind & Language, 36(2), 315-329.

  7. Common Sense Skills: Artificial Intelligence and The Workplace (2021). With Lucy Cheke and Matthew Crosby. In AI and the Future of Skills, Volume 1: Capabilities and Assessments (pp. 284-296) Paris: OECD Publishing.

  8. Minds, Machines, and Molecules (2020). With T. D. P. Brunet. Philosophical Topics, 48(1), 221-241.

  9. The Animal-AI Testbed and Competition (2020). With Crosby et al. Proceedings of the NeurIPS 2019 Competition and Demonstration Track, PMLR 123:164-176.

  10. The Limits of Machine Intelligence (2019). With Henry Shevlin, Karina Vold and Matthew Crosby. Science & Society, EMBO Reports, e49177.

  11. The Animal-AI Olympics (2019). With Matthew Crosby and Benjamin Beyret. Nature Machine Intelligence, 1: 257.

  12. Apply Rich Psychological Terms in AI with Care (2019). With Henry Shevlin. Nature Machine Intelligence, 1: 165-167.

  13. Not Null Enough: Pseudo-Null Hypotheses in Community Ecology and Comparative Psychology (2018). With William Bausman. Biology & Philosophy, 33(30): 1-20.

  14. The Goal of Ape Pointing (2018). With Katja Liebal and Michael Tomasello. PLOS ONE, 13(4): e0195182.

  15. Mapping Intelligence: Requirements and Possibilities (2017) With Bhatnagar et al. In Müller, Vincent C. (Ed.) Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence (pp. 117-135). Berlin: Springer.

  16. Mechanistic Explanation and its Limits (2017). In Stuart Glennan and Phyllis Illari (Eds.) Routledge Handbook of Mechanisms and Mechanical Philosophy (pp. 213-224). New York: Routledge.

  17. What Apes Know About Seeing (2017). In Kristin Andrews and Jacob Beck (Eds.) Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal Minds (pp. 238-246). New York: Routledge.

  18. There is No Special Problem of Mindreading in Nonhuman Animals (2015). Philosophy of Science, 82: 473-490.

  19. The Ontogenetic Ritualization of Bonobo Gestures (2013). With Federico Rossano and Michael Tomasello. Animal Cognition, 16(4): 653-666.

  20. Phylogenetic Community Structure in Minnesota Oak Savanna is Influenced by Spatial Extent and Environmental Variation (2010). With Willis et al. Ecography, 33(3): 565-577.


  1. Octopuses as Conscious Exotica (2018). Essay Review of Other Minds by Peter Godfrey-Smith. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 67: 28-31.

  2. Domains of Generality (2018). With Andrew Buskell. Commentary on "The Evolution of General Intelligence" by Judith M. Burkart, Michèle N. Schubiger, and Carel P. van Schaik. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 40: 28.

  3. Understanding Mechanistic Research (2015). Book review of "In Search of Mechanisms: Discoveries Across the Life Sciences" by Carl F. Craver and Lindley Darden. Metascience, 405-407.

  4. Book review  of "Darwin Deleted: Imagining a World without Darwin" by Peter J. Bowler (2014). Quarterly Review of Biology, 89(4): 373-374.

  5. Book Review of "Mindreading Animals: The Debate over What Animals Know about Other Minds" by Robert W. Lurz (2013), Philosophical Psychology, 27(2): 284-287.


  1. The Atlas of Intelligences: A Diverse Intelligences Resource (2022). With Ali Boyle, Kensy Cooperrider, Lucy Cheke, and Stephen Cave. White Paper.

  2. Five Ways AI Is Not Like The Manhattan Project (And One Way It Is) (5 August 2019). With Joseph D. Martin. 3 Quarks Daily.

  3. Inference and Error in Comparative Psychology: The Case of Mindreading (29 August 2015). Minds Online. With commentary by Irina Mikhalevich, Robert Lurz and Kristin Andrews.

  4. Mechanism, Conserved (2013). Encyclopedia of Systems Biology by Werner Dubitzky, Olaf Wolkenhauer, Kwang-Hyun Cho, and Hiroki Yokota (eds.). New York, NY: Springer: 1201-1204.

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